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English Grammar

Adjectives

Definition: An Adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun.  

  • To find an adjective, look at the noun or pronoun and ask what kind, which one, how many, how much or whose.  
  • Adjectives usually come before the noun they are describing.
  • A possessive noun or pronoun should be labeled as an adjective because it modifies a noun. Ex. Monarch’s throne
  • Example: The two burly men stared at Noah’s large wooden ark. 
    • Which men?  The
    • How many men?  two
    • What kind of men?  burly
    • Whose ark?  Noah’s
    • What kind of ark?  large, wooden

Types of Adjectives

  • Proper adjectives need to be capitalized like proper nouns.  Ex. Roman government.
  • A, an, and the are article adjectives and are always adjectives. They point to nouns in the sentence.
    • Use “a” before words beginning with a consonant. 
      Example: A manger  
    • Use “an” before words beginning with a vowel. 
      Example: An ark 
  • Predicate adjectives are in the predicate but describe the subject.  Linking verbs link the subject to the predicate adjective. Ex. The orator was entertaining. Be careful not to confuse a predicate adjective with a predicate nominative which renames the subject.
    • Example: Balaam’s donkey was wise.
      • The predicate adjective “wise” is an adjective describing “Balaam’s donkey.”  The linking verb “was”  links the subject “donkey” to the predicate adjective “wise.”
      • What kind of donkey?  wise
  • Compound Adjectives
    • Compound adjectives are two or more adjectives that modify the same noun.
    • Use a hyphen to combine compound adjectives.
    • Example: Peter is a well-known disciple.
  • Coordinate and Cumulative Adjectives
    • Coordinate Adjectives
      • Coordinate Adjectives are two or more adjectives that modify the same noun.
      • They can switch places and are separated by a comma.
        • Example: The energetic, happy chipmunks raced up the ramp onto Noah’s ark.
          This makes sense.
        • Example: The happy, energetic chipmunks raced up the ramp onto Noah’s ark.
          This makes sense, too.  You can switch “happy” and “energetic”.
    • Cumulative Adjectives
      • Cumulative Adjectives are two or more adjectives that modify the same noun.
      • They can not switch places and do not require a comma.
        • Example: The two burly men stared at Noah’s large wood ark. 
          This makes sense.
        • Example: The burly two men stared at Noah’s wood large ark.
          This makes does not sense.  You can not switch “two” and “burly” or “large” and “wood.”
  • Comparative Adjectives
    • Adjectives can be used to compare.  There are three degrees of comparison.
    • The positive degree is used when comparing one person or thing. 
      Example: Saul was brave.
    • The comparative degree is used when two people or things are being compared.  To change the positive degree into the comparative degree add -er to a one-syllable words. For words with more than two syllables use the word more.
      Example: Jonathan was braver than Saul.
    • The superlative degree is used when comparing more than two people or things. To change the positive degree into the superlative degree add -est to a one-syllable words. For words with more than two syllables use the word most. Ex. brave, braver, bravest. Ex. valuable, more valuable, most valuable
      • Example: David was the bravest of the three men.
      • Example:  brave, braver, bravest    
      • Example:  valuable, more valuable, most valuable 
      • Example: The simple necklace was valuable.  The silver necklace was more valuable than the simple necklace.  The gold necklace was the most valuable piece of jewelry she owned.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Adverbs

An Adverb is a word that modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb

  • Adverbs modify verbs most of the time.  
  • An adverb that modifies a verb may be before or after the verb or in the middle of the verb phrase. Find the verb and ask how, when, where and to what extent. 
  • When adverbs modify adjectives or other adverbs they come right before the adjective. Find the word that is being modified and ask the questions: how, when, and where.
  • The adverbs that normally define to what extent are: not, so, very, too, quite, rather, somewhat, extremely, really, terribly, and very.
  • Most “-ly” words are adverbs, but some adjectives end in -ly. Remember an adjective modifies a noun and an adverb modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb. Beware the imposters.
  • Ex. Mother was sweetly singing to her baby.     Singing how? Sweetly

The king seldomly talks to the peasants.           
Talks when? Seldomly

The farmer held the produce up to examine it.
Held where?  Up

The soup was too hot to eat.
To what extent? Too

Verbs

  • Adverbs modify verbs most of the time.  
  • To find an adverb, look at the verb and ask how, when, where, or to what extent. 
  • An adverb that modifies a verb may be before or after the verb or in the middle of the verb phrase. 
    • Example: Joseph had a dream and promptly told his family.   
      • Told how?  promptly
      • In this case, the adverb is before the verb. 
    • Example: Joseph fell down into the well.                 
      • Fell where?  down
      • Here, the adverb is after the verb.
    • Example: Judah should have never sold his brother.
      • Should have sold to what extent?  never
      • The adverb here is in the middle of the compound verb phrase.
      • This example shows something that you may encounter with verbs and adverbs.  Adverbs like “never” or “not” can appear to be a part of a verb phrase, but they only modify the verb.  In the example above, the verb phrase is “should have sold” rather than “should have never sold.”  “never” modifies the verb “sold.”  You will want to watch out for these!   

Adjectives or Adverbs

  • When adverbs modify adjectives or other adverbs, they come right before the adjective. 
  • Ask the questions: how, when, where, and to what extent.
    • Example: Joseph walked with the caravan very slowly.  
      • How slowly?  very
      • “Slowly” is an adverb, and “very” adds more detail.
    • Example: Judah was unusually quiet that night.    
      • How quiet?  unusually
      • “Quiet” is an adjective and the adverb “unusually” adds more detail.

Comparative Adverbs

  • Adverbs can be used to compare.  There are three degrees of comparison.
  • Positive degree is the base form.  Positive degree is used when comparing one person or thing. 
    • Example: Reuben rose early in the morning.
  • Comparative degree is used when two actions are being compared.  
    • To change the positive degree into the comparative degree add -er to a one-syllable words. 
    • For words with two or more syllables, use the word “more”.
    • Example: Reuben rose earlier than Joseph.
  • Superlative degree is used when comparing two or more actions. 
    • To change the positive degree into the superlative degree, add -est to a one-syllable words. 
    • For words with two or more syllables use the word “most”. 
    • Example: Of the twelve brothers, Judah rose earliest.
    • Example: early, earlier, earliest 
    • Example: slowly, more slowly, most slowly
    • Example: Simeon slowly walked.  Levi walked more slowly then Judah.  Of the brothers, Dan walked most slowly.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Conjunctions

A Conjunction is a word or word group that joins together, words, phrases or clauses.

The most common conjunctions are Coordinating conjunctions which allows you to join words, phrases, or clauses of equal grammatical type.  for, and, nor, but, or yet, so =  FANBOYS. Remember, if a coordinating conjunction combines two independent clauses, use a comma before the conjunction. IC, and IC

Subordinating conjunctions join independent and dependent clauses together. because, since, as, although, though, while, whereas, after, as, as if, before, if, once, that, when, while, where, whereas, wherever.   Remember, when a sentence starts with a subordinating conjunction, use a comma before the start of the independent clause. DC,IC  

Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together. Either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also, whether/or

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Clauses

A clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a predicate.

Independent clause (IC)  

  • An independent clause has a subject and a verb and can be understood on its own.
  • An independent clause is a complete sentence.
  • Example: He fell to the ground.

Dependent clause (DC)

  • A dependent clause has a subject and verb but can not be understood on its own.
  • Example: When the stone hit Goliath   
    This is a dependent clause.  Do you notice how you are left wondering what happens?

When you combine the dependent and independent clauses it makes a complete sentence.

Example: When the stone hit Goliath, he fell to the ground.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions are the most common conjunctions. 

Coordinating conjunctions allow you to join words, phrases, or clauses of equal grammatical type or the same part of speech, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions.

Coordinating conjunctions include: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. 

Remember, if a coordinating conjunction combines two independent clauses, use a comma before the conjunction. IC, and IC

Example: Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego obeyed and honored God.

  • “and” is joining the nouns Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego together.  
  • “and” is joining the verbs obeyed and honored together.

Example: Nebuchadnezzar ordered the three youth to be thrown into the furnace, yet he saw four people in the fire.
“Yet” is combining two independent clauses: “Nebuchadnezzar ordered the three youth to be thrown into the furnace” and “he saw four people in the fire.”

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinating clause joins independent and dependent clauses together. 

Subordinating conjunctions include: because, since, as, although, though, whereas, after, as, as if, before, if, once, that, when, while, where, whereas, wherever, than, lest, till, until, unless.

A clause containing a subordinate conjunction is a dependent clause.  

It needs an independent clause to form a complete sentence.

  • Example: Although they faced punishment.    
    This is a dependent clause.,  Do you notice how you are  left wondering what happens?
  • Example: They bravely trusted God.
    This is an independent clause.  

When you combine the dependent and independent clauses, it makes a complete sentence.

Example: Although they faced punishment, they bravely trusted God. or They bravely trusted God although they faced punishment.

Remember, when a sentence starts with a subordinating conjunction, use a comma before the start of the independent clause. DC, IC  

  • Example: The king ordered the men into the fire when it was its hottest.
    The DC comes after the IC.  You do not need a comma.
  • Example: Although they faced punishment, they bravely trusted God.
    The DC comes before the IC.  You do need a comma.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Correlative Conjunctions

These are pairs of conjunctions that work together within a sentence. 

Either…ornot only…. but alsoboth…andrather…than
neither…norwhether…orno sooner…than
Correlative Conjunctions

Ex. Daniel didn’t know whether God would protect him or not.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Interjection

An Interjection is an exclamatory word that is not grammatically related to other words in the sentence. An interjection can stand alone and usually expresses a strong feeling or emotion rather than meaning. It usually comes at the beginning of the sentence.  Use an exclamation point with a strong interjection and capitalize the first word after.  Use a comma after a mild interjection and do not capitalize the first word after.

  • Example: Wow!  Jesus arose from the grave.
  • Example: Alas, Jesus died on the cross.

Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together. Either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also, whether/or

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Noun

Noun: A word that names a person, place, thing or idea.

Nouns make up a large part of our English vocabulary!  Here are some examples of different kinds of nouns:

  • Persons: Romans, mother, teacher 
  • Places: Egypt, city, room, store 
  • Things: book, artifact, toy   
  • Ideas: happiness, honesty, peace

There are several kinds of nouns.  In this lesson, we’ll explore six different types.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Concrete and Abstract Nouns

Concrete Nouns: Nouns that you can touch, taste, hear, see, or smell. 

Let’s look at some examples of concrete nouns. 

Example 1: Ruth gleaned ears of grain in the field.
In this sentence, ”Ruth,” ”ears,” ”grain,” and ” field”  are concrete nouns because you can see or touch them.  

Example 2: She gleaned among the sheaves and the reapers all day.
”Sheaves,” ”reapers,” and ”day” are concrete nouns because you can see, touch, and taste them.

Abstract Nouns: Nouns that you cannot touch, taste, hear, see, or smell.  They refer to an idea, emotion, quality or state.

Abstract nouns are the opposite of concrete nouns.  Let’s look at some examples of abstract nouns: 

Example 1:Ruth’s loving attitude touched Boaz
Here, ”attitude” is an abstract noun.

Example 2: Naomi appreciated Ruth’s love for her.
”Love” is an abstract nouns because it is an emotion.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Common and Proper Nouns

Common Nouns: Nouns that do not name a particular or specific person, place, thing, or idea.

Proper Nouns: Nouns that name a particular or specific person, place, thing or idea.

Let’s look at some example sentences with common and proper nouns.  In the examples below, common nouns are in bold while proper nouns are underlined.  child, city, book, honesty

Example 1: Nehemiah served wine to the king.
In this example,Nehemiah refers to a specific person while ”wine” and ”king” are not referring to specific things.  

Example 2: Nehemiah journeyed to the city of Jerusalem.
Nehemiah is a specific person and ”Jerusalem is a specific place being referred to, but ”city” is not.

There are several things to remember about using proper nouns. 

A proper noun is capitalized no matter where it is in the sentence.  For example, the proper nouns ”Egypt”, ”Rome,” and ”Nile River” will always be capitalized. 

Names are proper nouns and should always be capitalized.  Some words, like mother or father, when used as a name should be capitalized.  For example: ”Father asked Mother to help him.”

When words like aunt or uncle appear before a name, it should be capitalized along with the name.  For example: ”We will visit Granny Toler this summer.”

You should capitalize ”north,” ”south,” ”east,” and ”west” when they designate name regions or are a part of a proper name, but you should not capitalize them when they merely indicate direction or general location.  For example: Northern and Southern Israel are north and east of Egypt.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Singular and Plural Nouns

Singular Nouns: Nouns name one person, place, thing or idea. 

Examples:  tool, city,  child

Plural Nouns: Nouns name more than one person, place, thing, or idea. 

Examples: Romans, cities, children

The big difference between singular and plural nouns are the number of nouns they are referring to.  Look at the following examples.  Singular nouns are bold and plural nouns are underlined.  

Example 1: ”My son give me your heart and let your eyes observe my ways” (Proverbs 23:26).
This sentence is referring to more than one ”eye” and ”way”, which means these are plural nouns.  However, it only mentions one ”son” and ”heart”, so these are singular nouns.

Example 2: ”A man of many companions may come to ruin, but there is a friend who sticks closer than a brother” (Proverbs 18:24).
In this sentence, there is only one ”man”, ”friend”, and ”brother”, which means they are singular nouns.  However, it is referring to more than one ”companion”, so ”companions” is plural.

Do you notice a pattern with the plural nouns in the examples above?  If you said that they all have an ”s” on the end, you are correct!  You can make most words plural by adding an ”s” to the end of the word.  

However, some nouns have a different plural form.  For example, to make ”man” plural, it becomes ”men” like in this sentence: ”The pharaoh was one man, but the Egyptian people included many men.” As you learn about and practice with nouns this week, watch out for these different plural nouns!

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Nouns Markers (“A,” “An,” and “The”)

The Article Adjectives or Noun Markers are  “A,” “An,” and “The.”  

When you see one ask “what” to find the noun.

Use “A” before words beginning with a consonant sound. 

Example: A manger    
“M” makes a consonant sound, so we use “a” before it.

Use “An” before words beginning with a vowel sound.  

Example: An apple
“A” makes a vowel sound, so we use “an” before it.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Possessive Nouns

A Possessive Noun shows ownership or possession.

A Singular Noun shows possession by adding an apostrophe (’) and an “s.”  

Example: The fruit belonging to the tree or tree’s fruit.
The tree owns its fruit and tree is singular, so we add an (’s) to the word tree.

A Plural Noun ending in “s” shows possession by adding an apostrophe (’). 

Example: The fruit belonging to the trees or trees fruit.
The trees own their fruit, and trees is plural and already ends with an “s.”  We add an (’) to the word trees.

A Plural Noun that does not end in “S” shows possession by adding an apostrophe (’) and an “s.” 

Example: The vote belonging to the men or Men’s vote.
The men own their vote, and men is plural but does not end with an “s.”  We add (’s) to the word men.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Noun Jobs

Nouns perform various jobs in a sentence.  

Subject nouns: These nouns function as the subject in a sentence.  

Example: The sun shone brightly.

Direct objects: A direct object follow an action verb and receives the action.  

Example: Jesus healed the leper. 

Indirect objects: An indirect object tells for or to whom or what the action of the verb is being done for.  

Example: Jesus showed Thomas his nail scarred hands.  

Object of the preposition: The object of the preposition follows the preposition. 

Example: Jesus healed the leper on the Sabbath. 

Predicate nominative: A predicate nominative renames the subject. 

Example: Jesus is God.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Nouns of Direct Address (NDA)
  • Use an NDA when you are directly addressing or naming someone or something.
  • NDAs are not related to the rest of the sentence.
  • If the NDA comes in the beginning of the sentence, use a comma after.

Example: Lazarus, come out.

  • If the NDA comes in the middle of the sentence, a comma goes on either side.

Example: If you had been here, Lord, my brother would not have died.

  • If the NDA comes at the end of a sentence, a comma comes before.

Example: I am the resurrection and the life.  Do you believe this, Martha?

Appositives
  • Appositives are nouns or a noun phrases that rename or describe a specific noun.
  • Appositives function to add more detail to a sentence by giving more information about a noun or noun phrase in a sentence. 
  • The appositive comes after the word it renames or describes.  
  • It is offset with commas on both sides.
    • Example: Jesus, the Son of God, died for our sins.
  • The appositive “the Son of God” gives you more detail on who Jesus is.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Preposition

A Preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word within the sentence. It may tell where something is or when something happened.

aboardamongbetweeninoverunderneath
aboutaroundbeyondinsidepastuntil
aboveatbyintosinceunto
acrossbeforedownlikethroughup
afterbehindduringnearthroughoutupon
againstbelowexceptoftowith
alongbeneathforofftowardwithin
amidbesidefromonunderwithout
Frequently Used Prepositions

The Object of the Preposition is the noun or pronoun that follows the preposition.

  • Example: The star of Bethlehem shone bright in the night sky.
  • In this example “sky” is the object of the preposition and ends the prepositional phrase “in the night sky.”

A Prepositional Phrase begins with a preposition and includes the object of preposition and anything that modifies it. A prepositional phrase is a modifier. A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or adverb to describe or provide information about another word or phrase within the sentence.  When a prepositional phrase modifies an adverb it is called an adverb phrase. It answers the questions how, when or where.

To find the prepositional phrase, find the preposition in the sentence and ask who or what.

  • Example: The Shepherds were watching their flocks at night.
    • What is the preposition?  At is the preposition
    • At what?  night is the object of the preposition
    • What is the complete prepositional phrase?  at night
  • Example: The angels appeared on that bright starry night
    • What is the preposition?  On is the preposition
    • On what?  night is the object of the preposition 
    • What is the complete prepositional phrase?  on that bright starry night.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Prepositional Phrase, Adverb Phrase, and Adjective Phrase
  • Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition, end with the object of the preposition, and includes anything that modifies the object of the preposition.
  • A prepositional phrase will never have a verb.
  • To find the prepositional phrase:
    • Find the preposition in the sentence
    • And ask who or what.
  • Example: The Shepherds were watching their flocks at night.
    • What is the preposition?  At is the preposition
    • At what?  night is the object of the preposition
    • What is the complete prepositional phrase?  at night
    • The preposition in this sentence is “at” and the object of the preposition is “night.”

The prepositional phrase may be used as an adverb or adjective within a sentence.

Adverb Phrase

  • An adverb phrase modifies the verb.
  • It answers the questions how, when, or where.
  • It may appear anywhere in the sentence.
  • Example:  Lazarus came out of the tomb.
    • Lazarus came where?  out of the tomb
    • The prepositional phrase “of the tomb” describes where Lazarus came from.  It is acting as an adverb in this sentence.
    • The preposition in this sentence is “of” and the object of the preposition is “tomb.”

Adjective Phrase

  • An adjective phrase modifies a noun.
  • It answers the questions what kind, which one, or how many.
  • It comes directly after the word it describes or modifies.
    • Example: The boy with the bread and fish listened intently.
      • Which boy? with the bread
      • The prepositional phrase “with the bread and fish” describes which boy.  It is acting as an adjective in this sentence.
      • The preposition in this sentence is “with” and the object of the preposition is “bread, fish.”
    • Example: Jesus caught the fish with the large finsnear the shore.
      • What kind of fish? with the large fins
      • This prepositional phrase modifies the noun fish and is an adjective phrase.
      • Caught where? near the shore
      • This prepositional phrase modifies the verb caught and is an adverb phrase.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Pronoun

A Pronoun takes the place of a noun in a sentence.

  • The Nominative Case is the subject and everything referring to the subject. It names or renames the subject. Use ‘I’ last with another noun or pronoun.   ‘You’ is always used first.
  • The Objective Case is the direct object, indirect object or object of the preposition. Objective case pronouns can come after action verbs as indirect or direct objects or following a preposition. 
  • The Possessive Case shows possession or ownership.
  • ‘You’ does not change form from the nominative to objective case, or from singular to plural.
Nominative CaseObjective CasePossessive Case
First Person (refers to the speaker)I, weme, usMy, mine, our, ours
Second Person (refers to the person spoken to)youYouYour, yours
Third Person (refers to the person spoken of)He, she, it, theyHim, her, it, themHis, her, hers, its, their, theirs

The Antecedent is the word the pronoun takes the place of.

  • The antecedent may not be in the same sentence as the pronoun. It may be in a prior sentence.  When using a pronoun if it’s not clear who or what the antecedent is, use the noun.
    • Example: Mary and Joseph journeyed to Bethlehem. They were going there for the census. 
      “Mary and Joseph” are the antecedent for “They.”
    • Example: The widow put two copper coins into the offering box. She gave her last coin.
      The widow” are the antecedent for “she and her.”

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Nominative Case

Nominative Case Pronouns are also known as Subject pronouns or Personal Pronouns. This case is used as the subject of the sentence. It names or renames the subject in the predicate part of a sentence.

Nominative case rules:

  • Use ‘I’ last with another noun or pronoun.   Example: Peter and I
  • ‘You’ is always used first.  Example: You and Paul
  • You may be singular or plural
CaseSingularPlural
1st PersonIwe
2nd Personyouyou
3rd Personhe, she, itthey
  • Example: Mary and Joseph journeyed to Bethlehem.  They were going there for the census.  
    • The pronoun “They” takes the place of “Mary and Joseph.” 
    • “They” is the subject of the sentence.
  • Example: The widow put two copper coins into the offering box. She gave all she had.
    • The pronoun “She” takes the place of “The widow.” 
    • “She”  is the subject of the sentence.
Objective Case

Objective Case Pronouns are used as an object within a phrase or clause. Following an action verb  they can function as indirect or direct objects. Following a preposition they can function as the object of the preposition.

Objective case rule: ‘You’ does not change form from the nominative to objective case

CaseSingularPlural
1st Personmeus
2nd Personyouyou
3rd Personhim, her, itthem

Example: Esther was a beautiful Jewish woman.  King Xerxes I named her as his new queen.

  • The pronoun “her” takes the place of “Esther.”
  •  “Her” is a direct object in the sentence.  Named who?  her

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Possessive Case

The Possessive Case Pronoun shows possession or ownership. 

The words in this first chart (My, your, her, his, its, our, their) are pronouns that act as adjectives within the sentence.

CaseSingularPlural
1st Personmyour
2nd Personyouryour
3rd Personhis, her, itstheir

The words in this second chart (Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs) are pronouns that show possession.   

CaseSingularPlural
1st Personmineours
2nd Personyoursyours
3rd Personhis, hers, itstheirs
  • Example: The widow gave her last coin.
    • Whose coin?  her
    • In the example, “her” is an adjective, and it answers the question whose.
  • Example: The coin was hers to give.
    In the example, “hers” shows possession.  The coin is hers.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Types of Pronouns

Reflexive Pronouns

  • This pronoun ends in ‘self’ when singular or ‘selves’ when plural.
  • They function as a Direct Object or Indirect Object.
  • These are used when the subject and the direct or indirect object of a sentence are the same person or people.
    • myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
    • Example: The rich ruler thought himself worthy of eternal life.

Demonstrative Pronouns 

  • A demonstrative pronoun stands in for something that has been previously mentioned or is understood from context.
  • It can take the place of a noun or a noun phrase.
    • this, that, these, those
    • Example: This is Noah’s ark.

Interrogative Pronouns

  • These pronouns ask questions.
  • It represents the thing that we do not know (what we are asking the question about).
    • what, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whose, why, where, when
    • Example: What are you building, Noah?

Distributive Pronouns

  • A distributive pronoun refers to each noun separately or one at a time. 
  • It is always singular and should be followed by a singular noun and verb.
  • Each, either, and neither are always singular.
  • None, any, everyone are followed by plural nouns and singular verbs.
    • Example: Each animal boarded the ark.

Indefinite Pronouns

  • These do not have an antecedent.
  • They do not name a particular noun.
    • Singular: anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, everywhere, little, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, nowhere, one, other, somebody, someone, something, 
    • Plural: both, few, many, others, own, several, all
    • Singular or Plural: all, any, more, most, none, some
    • Example: Everyone thought Noah was crazy.

Relative Pronouns

  • These join a dependent (or relative) clause to an independent clause. 
  • The antecedent should come before this pronoun.
  • Who, which, whose, whom, that, where, when, what, why 
    • Example: Noah, who was a righteous man, obeyed God and built an ark.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Verb

A Verb is a word or phrase that shows action, links another word to the subject or helps another verb.

  • An action verb describes what the subject is doing or thinking. Ex: The soldier wore armor.
  • A linking verb links the subject to a word that renames or describes it. Ex. The armor is a protective covering.
  • A helping verb or auxiliary verb helps another verb and forms a verb phrase. The helping verb always comes before the main verb. Ex. The armor is made of metal. 
Linking or Helping VerbsLinking VerbsHelping VerbsHelping Verbs
These are the “Be” verbs. They can be used as helping or linking verbs.These verbs can be used as linking or action verbs. When in doubt, remember that if you can replace the linking verb with a “be” verb then it’s a linking verb.These can be used as  verbs or action verbs.These are always helping verbs.
am
is   
are 
be                   being
been
was
were           
look           
sound       
taste         
smell        
feel                             
remain
seem
appear
grow
become
stay
have              do
has                does
had               did
can
may
could
will
might  should
shall
must    would

Subject-Verb Agreement

  • A singular verb is used with a plural subject, I, or you. A plural verb ending in -s is used with a singular subject. Ex. The centurion recruits soldiers. Or The centurions recruit soldiers. 

Infinitive

The word ‘to’ is followed by the basic form of a verb.  

Example: He decided to follow Jesus.  
In this sentence “decided” is the main verb. “To follow” is an infinitive.    

Don’t be tricked by infinitives!

Verb Tense

  • Present Tense Verb is either alone or ends with -s. A 

Past Tense Verb ends with -ed. Ex. The Centurion recruits soldiers.  The centurion recruited soldiers.  Use the “be” verb am, is, and are for present tense and was and were for past tense.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Action & Helping Verbs

Action Verbs

An action verb describes what the subject is doing or thinking. 

  • Example: The soldier wore armor. 
  • Example: Mary believed the angel.

Helping Verbs

A helping verb or auxiliary verb helps another verb and forms a verb phrase. 

The helping verb always comes before the main verb. 

Example: The armor is made of metal.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Linking Verbs

A linking verb links the subject to a word.

That word can rename the subject

Example: The armor is a protective covering.
The linking verb “is” links armor to what renames it, the protective covering.

That word can describe the subject or give you details about the subject.

Example: The armor was heavy.
The linking verb “was” links armor to what describes it, heavy.

How do you find a linking verb?

Find the subject of the sentence, who the sentence is about, and ask what is being said about it.

Example: Jesus is God.  

  • Who is God? 
    Jesus, Jesus is the subject.  
  • What is being said about Jesus? 
    He is.  “Is”  is the linking verb.  It links Jesus and God.  It tells you who Jesus is.

Example: Adam and Eve were happy in the Garden of Eden.

  • What is the linking verb?
    Did you say were?  That’s correct.  
  • Who were happy?  
    Adam and Eve   
  • What is being said about Adam and Eve?  
    Adam and Eve were happy.  Happy describes Adam and Eve.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Simple Verb Tenses

Verb Tense

  • Tense means time.
  • The tense of the verb tells you when the action in a sentence happened.
  • Most verbs take place in the simple past, simple present, or future.

Simple Past Tense

  • This tense describes something that has already happened.
  • A regular past tense verb ends in -ed.
  • It never has a helping verb.
  • Example: I prayed yesterday.

Simple Future Tense

  • This tense describes something that will happen in the future
  • A regular future tense verb needs the helping verb will or shall.
  • Example:  I will pray tomorrow.

Simple Present Tense

  • This tense describes something that is taking place right now.
  • The present tense is the basic form of the verb.  
  • It never has a helping verb.
  • Example:  I pray today. 

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Twelve Verb Tenses
Simple Tense

 Simple Past Tense 

  • The simple past tense describes an activity that has already happened.
  • Example: I prayed to God yesterday.

 Simple Present Tense

  • The simple present tense describes something that is taking place right now.  The action being described is constant.
  • Example: I pray daily.

Simple Future Tense

  • The simple future tense describes an action that will occur in the future.
  • Example: I will pray tomorrow.
SubjectSimple Present Subject + Base VerbSimple Past Subject + past tense VerbSimple Future Subject + will +  base Verb
Iprayprayedwill pray
youprayprayedwill pray
he, she, itpraysprayedwill pray
weprayprayedwill pray
theyprayprayedwill pray
Simple Verb Tense Chart

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Progressive Tense

Progressive tenses describe an ongoing (continuing or progressing) action.

Past Progressive Tense

  • The past progressive tense describes an ongoing activity that has already happened.  Often, it is used to set the scene for another action.
  • Example: I was praying to God when James entered.

Present Progressive Tense

  • The present progressive tense describes an ongoing action.
  • Example: I am praying for Elizabeth right now. 

Future Progressive Tense 

  • The future progressive tense describes an ongoing action that will happen in the future.
  • Example: I will be praying to God every day.
SubjectPresent Progressive Subject + be (present) + Present participlePast Progressive Subject + be (past) +  Present participleFuture Progressive Subject + will + be +  Present participle
Iam praying was prayingwill be praying
youpray were prayingwill be praying
he, she, itprayswas prayingwill be praying
wepray were prayingwill be praying
theypraywere prayingwill be praying
Progressive Verb Tense Chart

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Perfect Tense

Perfect tenses describe a future action that will be completed (or perfected).

Past Perfect Tense 

  • The past perfect tense shows an action that was completed before another took place.
  • Example: I had prayed to God before I started my day.

Present Perfect Tense

  • The present perfect tense describes an action that began in the past.  Often, the action continues into the present.
  • Example: I have prayed for an hour, so far.

Future Perfect Tense

  • The future perfect tense describes an action that will have been completed at some point in the future. 
  • Example: I will have prayed to God before bedtime.
SubjectPresent Perfect Subject + have/has + past participlePast Perfect  Subject + had +        past participleFuture Perfect Subject + will + have +         past participle
Ihave prayedhad prayedwill have prayed
youhave prayedhad prayedwill have prayed
he, she, ithas prayedhad prayedwill have prayed
wehave prayed had prayedwill have prayed
theyhave prayedhad prayedwill have prayed
Perfect Verb Tense Chart

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Perfect Progressive Tense

Perfect progressive tense describes a future action that will be ongoing (continuing or progressing).

Past Perfect Progressive Tense 

  • The past perfect progressive tense shows that an ongoing action in the past has ended.
  • Example: I had been praying to God, but I stopped to look up a Bible verse.

Present Perfect Progressive Tense

  • The present perfect progressive tense describes 1) a continuous activity that began in the past and continues into the present, or 2) a continuous activity that began in the past but has now finished.
  • Example: I have been praying since dawn.

Future Perfect Progressive Tense

  • The future perfect progressive tense describes an ongoing action that will be completed at a specific time in the future.
  • Example: I will have been praying for 3 hours by 12 o’clock.
SubjectPresent Perfect Progressive Subject + have/has + been +  present participlePast Perfect Progressive Subject + had + been +  present participleFuture Perfect Progressive Subject + will + had + been +  present participle
Ihave been praying had been prayingwill have been praying
youhave been praying had been prayingwill have been praying
he, she, ithave been praying had been prayingwill have been praying
wehave been praying  had been prayingwill have been praying
theyhave been praying had been prayingwill have been praying
Perfect Progressive Verb Tense Chart

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Verb Tense Chart
PresentSimpleProgressivePerfectPerfect Progressive
Subject + Base Verb
I paint. You paint. He paints. She paints. It paints. We paint. You paint. They paint.
Subject + be (present) + Present participle
I am painting. You are painting. He is painting. She is painting. It is painting. We are painting. You are painting. They are painting.
Subject + have/has +       past participle
I have painted. You have painted. He has painted. She has painted. It has painted. We have painted. You have painted. They have painted.
Subject + have/has + been +  present participle
I have been painting. You have been painting. He has been painting. She has been painting. It has been painting. We have been painting. You have been painting. They have been painting.
PastSubject + past tense Verb
I painted. You painted. He painted. She painted. It painted. We painted. You painted. They painted.
Subject + be (past) +  Present participle
I was painting. You were painting. He was painting. She was painting. It was painting. We were painting. You were painting. They were painting.
Subject + had +        past participle
I had painted. You had painted. He had painted. She had painted. It had painted. We had painted. You had painted. They had painted.
Subject + had + been +  present participle
I had been painting. You had been painting. He had been painting. She had been painting. It had been painting. We had been painting. You had been painting. They had been painting.
FutureSubject + will +  base Verb
I will paint. You will paint. He will paint. She will paint. It will paint. We will paint. You will paint. They will paint.
Subject + will + be +  Present participle
I will be painting. You will be painting. He will be painting. She will be painting. It will be painting. We will be painting. You will be painting. They will be painting.
Subject + will + have +         past participle
I will have painted. You will have painted. He will have painted. She will have painted. It will have painted. We will have painted. You will have painted. They will have painted.
Subject + will + had + been +  present participle
I will have been painting. You will have been painting. He will have been painting. She will have been painting. It will have been painting. We will have been painting. You will have been painting. They will have been painting.
Verb Tense Chart

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Verb Forms

Base Form

  • The base form of a verb is the simplest form of a verb.
  • Example: see, run, think, pray

Infinitive

  • This form of the verb is expressed with the word “to” and the base form of the verb.
  • Example: to do, to run, to see, to pray

Present Form

  • This form describes something that is taking place right now.
  • This form is the same as the infinitive in 1st and 2nd person singular and plural, and 3rd person plural.
  • In the 3rd person singular you had -s or -es.
  • Example: I see, You see, He sees, She sees, It sees, We see, They see
CaseSingularPlural
1st PersonI praywe pray
2nd Personyou prayyou pray
3rd Personhe, she, it praysthey pray
Present Form

Past Form

  • This form describes something that has already happened.
  • There are two forms: Irregular and Regular 

Regular Verbs

  • These form the simple past tense or past participle by adding -ed or -d to the base form.
    Example: jumped, prayed

Irregular Verbs

  • These do not form the simple past tense and its past participle by adding by adding -ed or -d.
  • Irregular verbs form the past or past participle in different ways.
    Example: ran, rode
  • Some irregular verbs don’t change their form.
    Example: bet, hurt, cut

Present Participle

  • The present participle is formed by adding  –ing to the end of the base form of verb.
  • Combined with a helping verb it can form two different verb tenses: progressive tense or perfect progressive verb tense.
  • Progressive tenses describe an ongoing (continuing or progressing) action.
    Example: The baby is crying.
  • Perfect progressive tense describes a future action that will be ongoing (continuing or progressing).
    Example: I had been praying to God, but I stopped to look up a Bible verse.

Past Participle

  • The past participle is formed by adding  -ed, -d  to a regular verb.
  • The past participle is formed by adding -t, -en, or -n to the end of an irregular verb.
  • When the past participle is combined with a helping verb, it can form the perfect verb tense.
    Example: He had painted the toy.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Verbals

Verbals are words formed from a verb that does not function as a verb.

Verbals often function as a nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

  • A Noun names a person, place, thing or idea.
  • An Adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun.  
  • An Adverb modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Infinitive

The infinitive form of the verb becomes a verbal when it is used as an adjective, adverb, or noun.

Example: To suffer for Christ was everything to Paul.

  • To suffer is an infinitive used as a noun in this sentence.
  • was is the linking verb in this sentence.
  • Who or what was?  To suffer  

Participles

These function as adjectives. 

They will not have a helping verb. 

There are two participles: 

  • Present Participle: 
    Example: The crying baby
    Crying is acting as an adjective and describes the baby.
  • Past Participle:
    Example: The painted toy
    Painted is acting as an adjective and describes the toy.

Gerund

A gerund is derived from a verb but functions as a noun.  

A gerund ends in -ing. 

Example: Praying is very important.

  • Praying is a gerund used as a noun in this sentence.
  • is is the linking verb in this sentence.
  • Who or what is?  Praying

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Verb Voice

The voice of a verb tells whether the subject is completing the action or if the action is being done to the subject:

There are two voices:

Active Voice

The subject of the sentence is completing an action.

Example: Eve ate the fruit.
Eve is the subject of the sentence and she is the one who is actively eating the fruit.

Passive Voice

The action is being done to the subject. 

Example: The fruit was eaten by Eve.
The fruit is the subject of the sentence, but it is not performing the action of eating.  Eve is.  In this sentence the fruit is receiving the action of being eaten.

Identifying active or passive voice

Decide if the subject is performing the action or receiving the action.

  • Eve gave the fruit to Adam.
    • Is this active or passive voice?
    • Eve is the one giving the fruit.  This is active voice.  
    • The fruit is receiving the action.
  • How would you change this to a passive voice?
    • Since the fruit is receiving the action, move it to the subject and reword the sentence.
    • The fruit was given to Adam by Eve.
    • The fruit did not give itself, so it is receiving the action.  This is now passive voice.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Regular and Irregular Verbs

Regular Verbs

Form the simple past tense or past participle by adding -ed or -d to the base form.

  • Example: jumped, prayed
  • Jesus traveled to Samaria.
    Travel is the base verb and -ed was added to make it past tense.

Irregular Verbs

These do not form the simple past tense and its past participle by adding by adding -ed or -d.

Irregular verbs form the past or past participle in different ways.
Example:  ran, rode

Some irregular verbs do not change their form.
Example:  bet, hurt, cut

  • Jesus sat by the well.
  • The woman drew water from the well.
  • You do not add -ed to the base verbs sit and draw.  Their past tense forms are made differently. 

In the following chart, we have provided different irregular verbs and their past simple and past participle forms.  You should feel free to return to this chart anytime that you need help with an irregular verb.

Irregular VerbPast SimplePast ParticipleIrregular VerbPast SimplePast Participle
becomebecamebecomelaylaidlaid
beginbeganbegunleadledled
bitebitbittenleaveleftleft
blowblewblownlielaylain
breakbrokebrokenloselostlost
bringbroughtbroughtmakemademade
buildbuiltbuiltmeetmetmet
buyboughtboughtpaypaidpaid
catchcaughtcaughtrideroderidden
choosechosechosenriseroserisen
dodiddonesaysaidsaid
drawdrewdrawnseesawseen
drinkdrankdrunksellsoldsold
drivedrovedrivensendsentsent
eatateeatenshowshowedshown
fall fellfallensingsangsung
feelfeltfeltsinksanksunk
fightfoughtfoughtsitsatsat
findfoundfoundsleepsleptslept
flyflewflownspeakspokespoken
forbidforbadeforbiddenspendspentspent
forgiveforgaveforgivenstandstoodstood
freezefrozefrozenstealstolestolen
getgotgottenswimswamswum
givegavegiventaketooktaken
gowentgoneteachtaughttaught
growgrewgrowntelltoldtold
havehadhadthinkthoughtthought
hearheardheardthrowthrewthrown
hidehidhiddenwearworeworn
holdheldheldwinwonwon
keepkeptkeptwritewrotewritten
knowknewknown


Irregular VerbPast SimplePast ParticipleIrregular VerbPast SimplePast Participle
betbetbetputputput
broadcastbroadcastbroadcastquitquitquit
cutcutcutreadreadread
hithithitsetsetset
hurthurthurtshutshutshut
letletletspreadspreadspread

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Sentences

Complete Sentences: 

A complete sentence must have:

  • a subject noun or pronoun which tells who or what the sentence is about 
  • a verb which tells what the subject is doing or is
  • a complete thought that is being expressed 
  • a capital letter
  • an end mark 

A complete sentence is an independent clause (IC).

An independent clause has a subject (tells whom or what the sentence is about) and a predicate (tells what the subject does or is).

Ask the following questions to determine if the sentence is complete.

Example: Jochebed hid Moses for three months.  

  • Does the sentence have a subject noun or pronoun?  Yes. Who hid Moses for three months?  Jochebed. 
  • Does the sentence have a verb?  Yes, What is being said about Jochebed? hid
  • Does the sentence make a complete thought? Yes
  • Does it begin with a capital letter? Yes
  • Does it have an end mark? Yes
  • Is it a complete sentence? Yes

Fragment: 

A fragment is not a complete sentence.  Something is missing.

  • Example: basket of reeds
    What about the basket of reeds?  This is missing a verb.
  • Example: planted the seeds
    Who or what planted the seeds?  The subject noun or pronoun is missing.

Let’s look at a few examples.  

Which of the following is a fragment and which is a sentence? 

  • A. The gift of the Nile.
  • B. Miriam went to get a nurse for the daughter of Pharaoh.
  • Answer: 
    • Did you say “A” is a Fragment and  “B” is a Sentence?  Yes, you are correct. 
    • “A” does not make a complete thought.  What is the “gift” doing?  This is a fragment because it doesn’t have a verb.

Run-on:

A Run-on Sentence is two complete sentences not combined together correctly.

  • Wrong: She made a basket of bulrushes she placed the baby in the basket.  
    There are two independent clauses “She made a basket of bulrushes”  and “she placed the baby in the basket,and one clause runs into the next.
  • Wrong: She made a basket of bulrushes, she placed the baby in the basket. 
    There are two independent clauses “She made a basket of bulrushes”  and “she placed the baby in the basket,and they are combined with a simple comma.
    • Comma splice: 
      • A comma is used to combine two independent clauses.
      • However, a comma is not strong enough to combine the two sentences. 
    • How would you correct the run-on sentence above?  
      • Add a period after bulrushes and capitalize the “S” in she.
        Correct: She made a basket of bulrushes.  She placed the baby in the basket. 
      • Add a semicolon.  Only use a semicolon if the two sentences are close in meaning.
        Correct: She made a basket of bulrushes; she placed the baby in the basket. 
      • Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
        Correct: She made a basket of bulrushes, and she placed the baby in the basket.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming

When you diagram a sentence, you are using a picture to show how the various parts of the sentence relate to each other.  We do not require diagramming, but as an option for those who enjoy this method, the following example shows this grammatical concept in diagram form. 

Begin by diagramming the simple subject and simple predicate of the independent clause (IC).

  • Simple Subject is whom or what the sentence is about.
  • Simple Predicate is the verb or verb phrase that tells what the subject does or is.

Let’s diagram the subject and verb of a sentence.

Ex. Jochebed hid Moses for three months.  
We already know the simple subject is Jochebed and the verb or simple predicate is hid.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson, lessons provided below, and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming: Subjects and Predicates

Begin by identifying the simple subject and simple predicate of the sentence.

If a sentence has a compound subject or predicate, add more lines.

Example: Suddenly the flood waters carpeted the earth.

Example: The sun, moon, and stars were created on the fourth day of creation.

This is a compound subject.

Example: Eve desired and ate the fruit.

This is a compound predicate.

Diagramming: Simple Sentences
  • Diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of the independent clause (IC).
  • The Simple Subject is whom or what the sentence is about.
  • The Simple Predicate is the verb or verb phrase that tells what the subject does or is.  

Example: David bravely faced Goliath.

Diagramming: Complex Sentences
  • Diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of the first clause on the top line.
  • The subordinate conjunction goes on the diagonal line.  It does not matter if the subordinate clause comes at the beginning of the sentence or the middle.
  • On the bottom line, diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of the second clause.

Example: While David ran towards Goliath, he slung a stone at Goliath.

Diagramming: Compound Sentences
  • Diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of the first clause on the top line.
  • The conjunction or semicolon goes on the middle line.  
  • On the bottom line, diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of the second clause.

Example: The stone struck Goliath in the head, and he fell to the ground.

Diagramming: Four Types of Sentences

Interrogative Sentence

Did Jonah go to Nineveh?
In an interrogative sentence the first word of the sentence may be a helping verb.

Interrogative Sentence

Declarative Sentence

God sent Jonah to Nineveh.

Declarative Sentence

Exclamatory Sentence

If the exclamatory statement is an interjection, it is placed on its own line above the rest of the diagrammed sentence.

Watch out!  That fish is huge.

Exclamatory Sentence

The whale swallowed Jonah!

Exclamatory Sentence

Imperative Sentence

For the imperative sentence, the understood “you” is the simple subject.

Go to tell the people to repent.

Imperative Sentence

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming: Sentences with Adjectives
  • Diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of the independent clause (IC).
  • The Simple Subject is whom or what the sentence is about.
  • The Simple Predicate is the verb or verb phrase that tells what the subject does or is.  
  • Diagram Adjectives on the slanted line below the word they modify.
  • Example: The massive ark kept them safe. 
  • “The” and “massive” both describe “ark” and go on a slanted line below “ark”.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming: Sentences with Adverbs
  • Diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of the independent clause (IC).
  • The Simple Subject is whom or what the sentence is about.
  • The Simple Predicate is the verb or verb phrase that tells what the subject does or is.  
  • Diagram Adverbs on the slanted line below the word they modify.
  • Example: Judah should have never sold his brother.
  • “Never” tells how Judah should have sold his brother and goes on a slanted line below “should have sold.”
  • Example: Rachel sweetly sang to baby Joseph. 
  • “Sweetly” tells  how Rachel sang and goes on a slanted line below “should have sold.”

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming: Direct and Indirect Objects
  • Diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of the independent clause (IC).
  • The Simple Subject is whom or what the sentence is about.
  • The Simple Predicate is the verb or verb phrase that tells what the subject does or is.  
  • To add the direct object to the diagram, add a line after the verb and place the direct object to the right of the line.
  • The indirect object goes below the verb.  Draw a slanted line beneath the verb and a straight line off of the slanted line.  Remember adverbs go on a slanted line below the verb.
  • Example: Moses saw the fiery bush.  
  • The adjectives “the fiery” describe the bush, so they are placed below the direct object.
  • Example: Aaron handed Moses his staff.
  • The pronoun “his” modifies staff.  We will cover pronouns in week 21.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming: Predicate Adjectives and Nominatives
  • Diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of the independent clause (IC).
  • The Simple Subject is whom or what the sentence is about.
  • The Simple Predicate is the verb or verb phrase that tells what the subject does or is.  
  • To add the Predicate Adjective and Nominative to the diagram, add a slanted line after the verb and place the Predicate Adjective and Nominative to the right of the line.
  • Example: Balaam’s donkey was wise.
  • Example: Jesus is God.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming: Prepositional, Adverb, and Adjective Phrases
  • Diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of the independent clause (IC).
  • The Simple Subject is whom or what the sentence is about.
  • The Simple Predicate is the verb or verb phrase that tells what the subject does or is.
  • Determine which part of speech the prepositional phrase modifies.
  • The prepositional phrase goes below the word or phrase it modifies.  Draw a slanted line beneath the word or phrase being modified and draw a straight line off of the slanted line. 
  • On the slanted line, write the preposition.  On the straight line, write the object of the preposition.
  • Any adjective that describes or modifies the object of the preposition goes on a slanted line beneath the object of the preposition.
  • Example: Lazarus came out of the tomb.
  • Example: The boy with the bread and fish listened intently.
    NOTE: Take note of the compound object of the preposition.
  • Example: Jesus caught the fishwith the large fins near the shore.
  • The prepositional phrase “with the large fins” modifies the direct object “fish.”

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming: Pronouns

Diagram pronouns just like you would a noun.

Example: She gave her last coin.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming: Interjections
  • Wow!  Jesus arose from the grave.
  • The interjection is placed on its own line above the rest of the diagrammed sentence.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming: Nouns of Direct Address (NDA)
  • Lazarus, come out.
  • The NDA is placed on its own line above the rest of the diagrammed sentence.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Diagramming: Appositives
  • Jesus, the Son of God, died for our sins.   
  • The appositive is placed in parentheses next to the word it describes.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Subjects and Predicates

Sentences 

are composed of two main parts: the Subject and the Predicate. 

Complete Subject 

The Complete Subject of a sentence tells whom or what the sentence is about and includes any words or phrases that describe or modifies the subject.

Example: Ten leprous men begged Jesus to heal them.
The complete subject “Ten leprous men” tells who begged Jesus to heal them.. 

Every Subject has a subject noun (person, place, thing, or idea) or pronoun (a pronoun takes the place of a noun, ex: he, she, it, they).  This is the Simple Subject.  

Example:  Ten leprous men begged Jesus to heal them.
The simple subject is “men.”  “Ten leprous” is an adjective that describes the men. 

Simple Subject 

is whom or what the sentence is about.

To find the simple subject ask who or what the sentence is about.

Example: One leper returned and praised God for his healing.
The simple subject is “leper.”  “Leper” tells you who returned and praised God.

Complete Predicate 

The Complete Predicate of a sentence tells what the subject does or is and includes any words or phrases that describe or explain what is happening in the sentence.

Every sentence has a linking verb or action verb or verb phrase.  This is the Simple Predicate.

Example: The good Samaritan had compassion for the beaten man.
The complete predicate “had compassion for the beaten man” tells you what the Samaritan did and gives you more details.

Simple Predicate 

is the verb or verb phrase that tells what the subject does or is.  

To find the simple predicate ask what is being said about the subject.

Example: The good Samaritan had compassion for the beaten man.
The simple predicate “had compassion” tells you what the Samaritan did.

Dividing a sentence 

Divide the sentence between the subject and the predicate, between who the sentence is about and what they are doing.

Ex. The old womanlaughed at the thought of being a mother in her old age.  

Finding the Complete Subject and Predicate and the Simple Subject and Predicate

  • Example: The old womanlaughed at the thought of being a mother in her old age.  
    • Ask who laughed at the thought of being a mother in her old age? woman
    • Ask what is being said about woman? laughed
      • Simple Subject: woman
      • Simple Predicate: laughed
    • Anything that describes the subject or tells you more about the subject is the Complete Subject.
      Complete Subject: The old woman
    • Anything that describes the predicate or tells you more about the predicate is the Complete Predicate.
      Complete Predicate: laughed at the thought of being a mother in her old age.
  • Example: Suddenly the flood waters carpeted the earth.
    • What carpeted the earth?  Waters
    • What is being said about the waters?  Carpeted
      • Complete Subject: the flood waters
      • Complete Predicate: Suddenly carpeted the earth
      • Simple Subject: water
      • Simple Predicate: carpeted
  • Do not be tricked.  
    • Sometimes part of the predicate can come before the subject.  
    • To figure out which words belong to the subject and predicate, you can ask, “To which word do the other words in the sentence relate to?”  
    • “Suddenly” describes how the waters carpeted the earth, it does not describe the waters.
    • “Suddenly” is an adverb describing carpeted.

Compound Subject 

A compound subject contains two or more subjects that have the same verb(s).

Ex. The sun, moon, and stars were created on the fourth day of creation.

  • To find the simple subject, ask who or what the sentence is about.
    • Ask what was created on the fourth day of creation?  Sun, moon, and stars
    • What is the complete subject?  The sun, moon, and stars
    • What is the simple subject?  Sun, moon, stars
  • To find the simple predicate, ask what is being said about the subject of the sentence.
    • Ask what is being said about the sun, moon, and stars?  were created
    • What is the complete predicate?  were created on the fourth day of creation
    • What is the simple predicate?  were created

Compound Predicate 

A compound predicate contains two or more verb or verb phrases that have the same subject. 

Ex. Eve desired and ate the fruit.

  • To find the simple predicate, ask what is being said about the subject.
    • What is being said about Eve?  desired and ate
    • What is the complete predicate?  desired and ate the fruit.
    • What is the simple predicate?  desired, ate
  • To find the simple subject, ask who or what the sentence is about.
    • Ask who desired and ate?  Eve
    • What is the complete subject?  Eve
    • What is the simple subject?  Eve

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Clauses

Clauses

A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate and forming part of a compound or complex sentence.

Independent Clause (IC)

  • An independent clause has a subject and a predicate and can be understood on its own.
  • An independent clause is a complete sentence and makes a complete thought.
  • A Simple Sentence is an Independent Clause (IC)
  • Example: He fell to the ground 

Dependent Clause (DC)

  • A dependent clause has a subject and predicate but can not be understood on its own.
  • A dependent clause contains a subordinate conjunction and is a dependent clause. 
  • Example: When the stone hit Goliath   
    This is a dependent clause.  Do you notice how you are left wondering what happens?

When you combine the dependent and independent clauses it makes a complete sentence.

Example: When the stone hit Goliath, he fell to the ground.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Types of Sentences: Simple, Complex, and Compound
Simple Sentences

A simple sentence contains a subject and predicate.

A simple sentence can include a compound subject or compound predicate.

A simple sentence is an independent clause (IC).

Example: David bravely faced Goliath.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Compound Sentences

A compound sentence contains two or more simple sentences or independent clauses (IC) combined with a conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).  

Each independent clause includes its own simple subject and simple predicate.

A comma (,) is always used before the conjunction.

Example: David swung his slingshot, and the stone flew through air.
The two independent clauses “David swung his slingshot” and “the stone flew through the air” are joined together by a comma and an “and.”

A semicolon (;) may also be used to combine two independent clauses that are similar in thought.

Example: Saul offered David his armor; David respectfully declined.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Complex Sentences

A complex sentence contains a dependent clause and an independent clause.

A complex sentence includes a subordinating conjunction (because, since, as, although, though, whereas, after, as, as if, before, if, once, that, when, while, where, whereas, wherever, than, lest, till, unless, supposing)

A clause containing a subordinate conjunction is a dependent clause.  

It needs an independent clause to form a complete sentence.

  • Example: Although Paul faced punishment
    This is a dependent clause.,  Do you notice how you are  left wandering what happens?
  • Example:  He bravely trusted God
    This is an independent clause.  

When you combine the dependent and independent clauses it makes a complete sentence a complex sentence.

Example: Although Paul faced punishment, he bravely trusted God. or He bravely trusted God although he faced punishment.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Four Kinds of Sentences and End Marks

Question or Interrogative sentence: 

  • An interrogative sentence asks something. 
  • It ends with a question mark(?).
  • Example: Did Jonah go to Nineveh?

Statement or Declarative sentence: 

  • A declarative sentence tells or states something. 
  • It ends with a period (.).
  • Example: God sent Jonah to Nineveh.

Exclamation or Exclamatory sentence: 

  • An exclamatory sentence shows a strong feeling. 
  • It ends with an exclamation point (!).
    • Example: Watch out! That fish is huge.
      • Sometimes the exclamation mark comes after the interjection.
      • Interjections are exclamatory words that can stand alone.  Interjections are not grammatically related to other words in the rest of the sentence. 
    • Example: The whale swallowed Jonah!
      Sometimes the exclamation mark comes at the end of the sentence and there is not a interjection.

Command or Imperative sentence: 

  • An imperative sentence makes a request or commands something. 
  • It ends with a period (.). 
  • The subject in this type of sentence is “you.” 
  • We refer to it as the “understood you.”  Even though it is not written out, it is understood that it is there.
  • Example: Go to tell the people to repent.
    “You” go tell the people to repent.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Capitalization

Capitalization Rules

There are two different types of capitalization rules.  Some rules apply to different words, and other rules apply to sentences and writing.   

  • Proper Nouns
    • The proper names of persons, places, and things
    • Capitalize Mother, Dad, Doctor, and other titles when they serve as a replacement for the person’s name.
    • Capitalize names, initials, suffixes, and nicknames.
    • Capitalize titles when they are used before names, unless the title is followed by a comma.  Do not capitalize the title if it is used after a name or instead of a name.
    • The name of organizations, businesses, and institutions should be capitalized. 
    • Government bodies and departments, political parties: United States Congress, Department of the Treasury
    • Geographic places, planets: Africa, Greece, Persia, Mars
    • Historical events, periods of time, and historical documents: Ancient Greece, the Peloponnesian War, Declaration of Independence  
    • Names of days, months, but not the seasons: Monday, Saturday, January, May   
    • Names of holidays and special occasions: Christmas, Yom Kippur
    • Brand names: Melissa and Doug, Sears and Roebuck
    • Religions, religious denominations, religious documents, names of churches, the name of God and anything that refers to Him, names of supreme beings or deities: Christianity, Roman Catholic Church, God 
    • Languages, races, ethnic groups: English, Hispanic, Jewish, 
    • North, south, west, east, northeast, northwest, southeast southwest when referring to a region of the country or world, do not capitalize points on a compass: Egypt is located in Northern Africa.
    • Names of specific structures, monuments, landmarks: Statue of Liberty, Washington Monument, Chancellorsville Battlefield
  • Proper adjectives: Proper adjectives are derived from Proper nouns and need to be capitalized.  Italian, American
  • Pronouns
    • The pronoun I 
    • Other pronouns are only capitalized if they begin a sentence.
    • Example:Shannon and I visited Jerusalem.
  • Interjections
    • Capitalize the first letter of the interjection and the next word following the exclamation point.
    • Example:  What!  There is no room in the inn.
  • In writing:
    • The first letter of the first word in a sentence
    • The first word, last word, and all-important words in any title
    • Example: In class we are reading Great Expectations by Charles Dickens.
  • Poetry
    • First letter of the first word in most lines of poetry
    • Example: “Hickory, dickory, dock”

      “Hickory, dickory, dock,
      The mouse ran up the clock;
      The clock struck one,
      And down he run,
      Hickory, dickory, dock.”
  • Outlines
    • Roman numerals and the letters for the first major topics in an outline
    • Capitalize the first letter in the first word in an outline
  • Dialogue
    • Capitalize the first letter of the first word in a direct quotation. 
    • Example: Quotes can come in three different parts of a sentence:
      • Beginning Example: Jesus teaches that men must be reborn when he says, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God” (John 3:3). 
      • End Example:  “How can a man be born when he is old?” is a question that Nicodemus asks (John 3:4).
    • In a split quotation capitalize the first letter of the first word in the second part of the quote if a new sentence is started.
      • Split Example: “Truly, truly, I say to you,” Jesus responded, “unless one is born of water and the spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God” (John 3:5). 
  • Letters
  • The first word of the greeting, closing, and signature of a letter
  • The month in the heading date
  • Capitalize the month of the date and the street, city, and state of an address
  • See examples below

Writing a Friendly Letter and addressing the envelope

A Friendly Letter has 5 parts

  • Heading
    • Includes the date 
    • Sometimes your address
  • Greeting
    • Is the opening of your letter, 
    • It includes a greeting like “Dear…” and who your letter is to.
  • Body: Write your message here.
  • Closing
    • Is the end of your letter
    • It includes a closing like “Love…” or “Your Friend…”
  • Signature: This is where you sign the letter.

Addressing the envelope

  • Return Address
    • Line 1 includes sender’s name
    • Line 2 includes sender’s street address
    • Line 3 includes sender’s city, state abbreviation, and zip code
  • Sender’s Address
    • Line 1 includes the name of the recipient
    • Line 2 includes the street address of the recipient
    • Line 3 includes city, state abbreviation, and zip code of the recipient

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Direct and Indirect Objects

Direct Object: 

  • A Direct Object is a person or thing that receives the action of the verb. 
  • A Direct Object is always either a noun or pronoun.
  • A Direct Object is only used in a sentence with an action verb.
  • Ask the questions “What” or “Whom” after an action verb in order to find the Direct Object.
    • Example: Moses saw the fiery bush.
    • Moses saw what?  Bush

Indirect Object: 

  • An Indirect Object is a person or thing or phrase that tells: to whom, to what, for whom, or for what the action of the verb is done.
  • An Indirect Object may only be used in a sentence with a direct object.
  • Indirect objects come between the verb and direct object.
    • Example: Aaron handed Moses his staff.
    • Aaron handed what?  Staff
    • To whom? Moses

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Predicate Adjectives and Nominatives

Linking Verbs

  • A linking verb links the subject to a word that describes or renames it.
  • Linking verbs: am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being, look, sound, taste, smell, feel, seem, appear, grow, become, stay, remain
  • Some linking verbs may also be used as action verbs:  look, sound, taste, smell, feel, seem, appear, grow, become, stay, remain.
  • When in doubt: if you can replace the verb in question with a “be” verb then it is a linking verb.

Predicate Adjectives and Predicate Nominatives

  • Linking verbs link the subject to either a predicate adjective (describes) or predicate nominative (renames). 
  • The predicate part of the sentence includes the verb.  Both the Predicate Adjective and Predicate Nominative come in the predicate part of a sentence.
  • Predicate Adjectives and Predicate Nominatives may only be used with a linking verb, not an action verb.
  • Predicate adjectives describe the subject.  
    • Remember an adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun.  The subject of the sentence is a noun or pronoun.
    • Example: Balaam’s donkey was wise.
      Wise describes Balaam’s donkey.
  • Predicate nominative renames the subject. 
    • Example: Jesus is God.
      God renames who Jesus is.
  • Which sentence has the predicate adjective and which sentence has the predicate nominative.
    • Sentence A: Peter is a disciple of Jesus. 
    • Sentence B: Thomas is doubtful about the resurrection.
  • What type of sentence is sentence A?  Predicate Nominative
    Disciple renames who Peter is.
  • What type of sentence is sentence B?  Predicate Adjective
    Doubtful describes Thomas.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Contractions, Troublesome Words, and Double Negatives

Contractions

Contractions are two words that have one or more letters removed and replaced by an apostrophe

Pronoun + WouldContractionPronoun +  Is/AreContractionPronoun + Have/HasContractionPronoun + HadContractionPronoun + WillContraction
I wouldI’dYou areYou’reI haveI’veI hadI’dI willI’ll
You wouldYou’dHe isHe’sYou haveYou’veYou hadYou’dYou willYou’ll
He wouldHe’dShe isShe’sHe hasHe’sHe hadHe’dHe willHe’ll
She wouldShe’dIt isIt’sShe hasShe’sShe hadShe’dShe willShe’ll
It wouldIt’dWe areWe’reIt hasIt’sIt hadIt’dIt willIt’ll
We wouldWe’dThey areThey’reWe haveWe’veWe hadWe’dwe willWe’ll
They wouldThey’dThat isThat’sThey haveThey’veThey hadThey’dThey willThey’ll
That wouldThat’dThere isThere’s That hasThat’sThat hadThat’dThat willThat’ll
There wouldThere’dWho isWho’sThere hasThere’sThere hadThere’dwho will Who’ll
Who wouldWho’d

Who hasWho’sWho hadWho’d

  • Apostrophe is used to replace missing letter(s).
  • Rules
    • When the 2nd word of the contraction is:
    • not: the apostrophe (‘) takes the place of the “o” (e.g. do not = don’t)
    • is: the apostrophe (‘) takes the place of the “i” (e.g. it is = it’s)
    • are: the apostrophe (‘) takes the place of the “a” (e.g. we are = we’re)
    • have: the apostrophe (‘) takes the place of the “h a” (e.g. I have = I’ve)
    • will: the apostrophe (‘) takes the place of the “w i” (e.g. she will = she’ll)

Double Negatives

  • Double negatives occur when you are using two negative words or phrases together in a sentence.
  • Negative words: No, none, no one, nothing, nobody
  • Negative Adverbs: Not (n’t), scarcely, hardly, never, barely
    • Incorrect: Doesn’t nobody believe that the Israelites crossed the Red Sea on dry ground?
    • Correct: Does nobody believe that the Israelites crossed the Red Sea on dry ground? or Doesn’t anybody believe that the Israelites crossed the Red Sea on dry ground?

Troublesome Words: Troublesome Words are words that have similar meanings (synonyms) or that sound the same (homophones) but have different meanings and can easily trick you.

Homophones 

  • These are words that sound the same but have different meanings. 
  • They may or may not be spelled the same.
  • its: is a pronoun that shows possession, 
  • it’s: is a contraction: it is
    • Examples: 
      • It’s possible with God to cross on dry ground.  
      • The horse pulled against its bridle and refused to move forward.
  • their: is a pronoun that shows possession
  • there: means in that place or at that point
  • they’re: is a contraction: they are
    • Examples: 
      • They brought their animals with them. 
      • They crossed there on dry land.  
      • They’re happy to be leaving Egypt.
  • who’s: is a contraction: who is
  • whose: possessive case of who or which
  • to: Has several meanings including: showing movement, refers to an end point, identifies the person affected or receiving something or shows a change in state, condition or quality. 
  • two: is a cardinal number, #2
  • too: means also or in excess

Synonyms: Mean the same or almost the same thing

  • Good: Is an adjective when meaning of high quality
  • Well:
    • Is an adjective when telling how something is done
    • Is an adverb when referring to health
  • Example: It is good to be in the house of the Lord.  
  • Examples: 
    • The leprous man did not feel well.  
    • It is well with my soul.

Verbs 

  • Verbs that have similar meaning can be confusing.
  • Transitive verbs have a direct object.  
  • Intransitive verbs do not have a direct object.
  • Sit 
    • This is intransitive and means to sit down
    • sit, sat, (has, have, had) sat
    • Example: Eliphaz sat next to Job.
  • Set
    • This is transitive and means to put something somewhere.
    • set, set, (has, have, had) set
    • Example: The angel set food before Elijah.
      In this sentence, “food” is the direct object.”  Set what?  food
  • Lie 
    • This is intransitive and means to rest or recline.
    • lie, lay, (has, have, had) lain
    • Example: The pharisees lie in front of the table.
  • Lay
    • This is transitive and means to put or place something.
    • lay, laid, (has, have, had) laid
    • Example: Rebekah lay the blanket on Issac.
      In this sentence, “blanket” is the direct object.”  Lay what?  blanket
  • Rise 
    • This is intransitive and means something moves up on its own.
    • rise, rose, (has,have, had) risen
    • Example: The sun rises every morning.
  • Raise
    • This is transitive and means something raises something
    • raise, raised, (has, have, had) raised
    • Example: As long as Moses raised his hand, they were winning.
      In this sentence, “hand” is the direct object”.  Raised what? hand

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Modifiers

Modifiers are a word, phrase, or clause that describes.

Example: Israel gave Joseph a coat of many colors.

  • The prepositional phrase “of many colors” describes “coat.”
  • Israel had the coat made from a vibrant, fine cloth.
  • Both “vibrant” and “fine” describe the cloth.

Misplaced Modifiers

  • A modifier is misplaced when it is placed too far from the word it is intended to modify and modifies the wrong word in the sentence.
  • The modifier should come before or after the word it describes or modifies.
  • If the modifier does not come near the word it describes, it could be hard to tell which word the modifier is describing.
    • Example: The Israelites turned to Moses to save them with despair from the Egyptians.
      It sounds like the Israelites want Moses to save them with despair.
    • Correct: The Israelites turned to Moses with despair to save them from the Egyptians. or With despair the Israelites turned to Moses to save them from the Egyptians. 
      It sounds like the Israelites are in despair and are turning to Moses to save them.

Dangling Modifiers

A modifier is dangling when the word being modified is not in the sentence.

  • Example: Holding his staff, the Red Sea parted.
    • Who is holding the staff?  not the Red Sea
    • In a correct sentence, the subject or doer that is modified should immediately follow the comma after the modifier.
  • Correct: Holding his staff, Moses parted the Red Sea.

Limiting Modifiers

  • just, almost, hardly, at first, simply, nearly, merely
  • These are adverbs that restrict or limit the word they modify.
  • They come right before the word they modify.
    • Example: Only Jesus can save us. 
      No one else can save us.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Punctuation Marks

Punctuation marks are a mark conventionally used to clarify written language.   

Periods
  • Use a period as punctuation mark in imperative or declarative sentences.
  • After abbreviations
    • Example: Mrs. Warren read us a bible story.
    • This sentence ends in a period.
    • In this sentence, the abbreviation “Mrs.” is followed by a period.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Commas
  • Use a comma to separate three or more words or phrases
    • Example: Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were thrown into the fiery furnace.
    • A comma separates “Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego.”
  • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction combining two independent clauses.
    • Example: Nebuchadnezzar ordered the three youth to be thrown into the furnace, yet he saw four people in the fire.
    • A comma is used before the coordinating conjunction “yet.”
  • Use a comma when a dependent clause comes before the independent clause.
    • Example: Although they faced punishment, they bravely trusted God.
  • Use a comma with a coordinating adjectives that can switch places.
    • Example: The energetic, happychipmunks raced up the ramp onto Noah’s ark.
    • The adjectives “energetic and happy” are separated by a comma because both describe the chipmunks.
  • In a date, a comma separates the day of the week from the month and the day of the month from the day of the year.
    • Example: Sunday, December 25, 2022
  • In an address, a comma separates the city and state.
    • Example: 100 Mountain View Lane
                      Churchill, TN 37642
  • Use a comma after a mild interjection.
    • Example: Alas, Jesus died on the cross.
    • The interjection “Alas” is followed by a comma.
  • Use a comma to off set an appositive.
    • Example: Jesus, the Son of God, died for our sins.
    • The appositive “the Son of God”
  • Use a comma to offset a Noun of Direct Address (NDA).
    • Example: Lazarus, come out.
    • The (NDA) “Lazarus”  is followed by a comma.
  • Commas may be used to clarify a sentence or to add a pause. 
    • Example: In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.
  • Commas are used to show nonessential clauses.
    • Noah, who was a righteous man, obeyed God and built an ark.
    • The nonessential clause “who was a righteous man” is offset by commas to show that it is not necessary to the sentence.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Colons
  • Before a list of items
    • Example: In the Garden of Eden, you could find many fruit: apples, bananas, mangoes, and peaches.
    • In this sentence, the colon (:) comes after fruit and before the series of items.
  • Between a Bible chapter and verse
    • Example: John 3:16
  • Between the hour and minute in time 
    • Example: 12:30p.m.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Hyphen
  • Use a hyphen in a compound number
    • Example: There are sixty-six books in the Bible. 
  • When dividing a word at the end of a sentence
    • Example: The Bible begins with the book of Genesis, which was written by Moses, and ends with of Revelation, which was written by John. 
  • Compound adjectives, two or more words that come before a noun they modify and act as a single idea
    • Example: Peter is a well-known disciple.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Apostrophe
  • Use an apostrophe when connecting words in a contraction.  (Contractions are words that are combined to form a single word.)  The apostrophe replaces the missing letter(s).  
    • Example: The words “do” and “not” become “don’t,” or “will” and “not” become “won’t”.
  • When showing possession 
    • Example: David’s psalms give comfort and encouragement in difficult times.
    • In this sentence, an apostrophe and “s” (‘s) are added to David to show possession.

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.

Dialogue and Quotation Marks
  • Dialogue is a conversation between two or more people.
  • Indirect quotes
    • Indirect quotes are not the exact words of the speaker.
    • An indirect quote is paraphrase or summary of a direct quote.
    • Since it is not a direct quote, it does not need any special punctuation.
  • Direct quotes
    • Direct quotes are the exact words of the speaker. 
    • Direct quotes include an attribution or a reference to the speaker, such as “said.”
    • A direct quote does need proper punctuation.
    • Punctuation rules
      • Use quotation marks (“ ”) to enclose the direct quote.
      • Use a comma to separate the attribution (the speaker) from the quote.
      • End marks and commas following a direct quote are placed inside the quotation marks.
      • If the direct quote is in the beginning or middle of a sentence, end marks and commas go inside the quotation marks, but the sentence ends with a period. (See Example 1 and 3 below.)
      • If the attribution is first in the sentence the comma follows the attribution before the quotation marks, and end marks and commas are placed inside the quotation marks. (See Example 2 below.)
      • Capitalize the first letter of the dialogue. 
      • If the attribution is in the middle of the dialogue, do not capitalize the second part unless it starts a new sentence or is a word that should be capitalized.
      • Indent for each new speaker.
    • Quotes can come in three different parts of a sentence:
      • Beginning (Example 1 from John 3:3): Jesus answered him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.”
      • End (Example 2 from John 3:4): “How can a man be born when he is old?” replied Nicodemus.
      • Middle (Example 3 from John 3:5): “Truly, truly, I say to you,” Jesus responded, “unless one is born of water and the spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God.”
  • Quotation Marks
    • Use quotation marks to enclose what the speaker is directly saying, a direct quotation.
    • You also use quotation marks to identify titles of:
      • short stories
      • Title of book chapters
      • Title of essays
      • Title of articles
      • Short plays
      • Television episodes
  • Single quotation marks are used for a quote within a quote

@ Christina Somerville. All Rights Reserved.
This lesson and practice sets were developed for Lampstand Press by Lesa Egen.